Production Technology of Potato

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Production technology of potato

Introduction

This article is about the production technology of potatoes. The potato belongs to the Solanaceae family, and the scientific name is Solanum tuberosum. There are many species of this family, and only a few can produce tubers. It is a staple crop of many countries, and it is made in large quantity and ranks with other crops like wheat, cotton, and rice. It was firstly introduced in Europe in the 16th century, and now it is cultivated throughout the world along with India and Pakistan. let’s discuss the production technology of potatoes.

Uses and Importance

It is mainly used and mixed with other vegetables, meat, and fish. Potato chips are prepared all over the world. It is a rich source of starch. It also contains proteins, minerals, and vitamins, particularly C.

production technology of potato

Climate

It is cultivated in a wide range of climates. It is a cool-season cold and frost tolerant crop. Temperature requirements are following;

  • Young plants best temperature                     24 degrees Celsius
  • Suitable tuber production temperature            20 degrees Celsius

An increase in temperature decrease tuber production. Short days enhance tuber formation.

Soil

The soil should have the following characteristics:

  • Deep
  • Fertile
  • Sandy to clay loam
  • Good water retention capacity
  • Good air retention capacity

Manures and Fertilizers

For 25 tons/ha production, it requires 118kg N, 50kg P, and 225kg K. Green manuring is also beneficial for tubers. Recommended doses of fertilizers are following:

  • FYM    30t/ha (4 weeks before planting)
  • Nitrogen           80-100kg/ha
  • Phosphorus      90-100kg/ha
  • Potash               50kg/ha

Some researchers suggest the following dese of fertilizers;

  • Nitrogen       125-220kg
  • Phosphorus    33-75kg
  • Potash              75-111kg

Spacing

  • Hilly areas spacing is 60*30 cm (Furrows)
  • In plains, spacing is 30cm (ridges), and the spacing between shelves is 45 to 60 cm

Seed Rate

We planted potatoes as tubers or as a whole or cut them into pieces. Seed potato should be healthy, disease-free, and free from the mixture of other tuber seeds. Its seed rate mainly depends on the soil, climate, variety, and tuber size. Its recommended seed rate is 800-1000kg/ha.

Read also:- Turnip production

https://mianfarms.com/production-technology-of-turnip/

Irrigation

We should rinse it frequently. First irrigation is done just after planting. After that, there is a one-week interval between irrigations. We decrease irrigation when tuber formation starts. We stopped irrigation a week before harvesting.

Varieties

Common varieties of sub-continents are;

  • Prima
  • Lala Faisal
  • Alpha
  • Multi
  • Velcro
  • Ultimas
  • Alladin
  • Desiree
  • Baroka
  • Cardinal

Harvesting

Harvesting depends on the size of the tuber. When the tuber matures and gain its full extent, the vine will dry. Mechanical harvesting is done in many developed countries. In the sub-continent, it is still harvested with a spade. Tubers should not be injured during harvesting. Tubers are collected and stored in the shade just after harvesting.

Yield

Its yield depends on;

  • Variety
  • Cultural practices
  • Season
  • Location

The yield of every variety is different in different places. The average crop of potatoes is 20 to 25 tons/ha.production technology of potato

Insects/Pests

Potato tuber moth

There are two stages of its attack. First, its attack leaves and shoots, then attack the tuber. They lay their eggs inside the tuber. These moths damage the plants.

Golden Nematode

It stunted plant growth. Leaves become yellow. Tuber size decreases.

Mole Cricket

It lives deep inside the field. It attacks other root crops along with tubers. It damaged the crop.

Green Stink Bug

It directly attacks the leaves of the plants and sucks their sap. Cause yellowing of leaves and faded them.

Diseases

Brown or Tuber Rot

It causes;

  • Foliage wilting
  • Marginal necrosis
  • Leaf size-reduction
  • Decrease plant height
  • Reduction of tubers dry weight

Wet rot and storage rot

It turns tuber colour from brown à black and after that rupture it.

Wilt

The wilt organism causes;

  • Wilting
  • Drying
  • Leaf yellowing
  • Leaves death

Early blight

First appears on leaves as brown or black lesions. After that, these spots increase in size and cause leaf curling and drying.

Visit: http://www.parc.gov.pk/index.php/en/154-urdu-m/vegetables-m/1101-cultivation-of-potato

Leaf spot

It appears as fungal spots on leaves which are dark in the centre and yellow margins. So, here is the complete production technology of potatoes.


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4 thoughts on “Production Technology of Potato

  • January 9, 2022 at 8:24 PM
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    Thanks , I have recently been searching for information approximately this subject for ages and yours is the best I’ve came upon till now.

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  • August 3, 2022 at 4:39 AM
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    i think potatoes are very nice. i do appriceate your effort to educate everyone about them.

    Reply

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